Meanwhile the work of erecting the fort was contin­ued. Carrington and the remaining officers did not sleep at all. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Upon the day fixed precisely for the march, as the new arrivals needed every roof during a snow-storm which soon became a blizzard, Carrington, his wife and children, his staff and their families, including Mrs. Grummond, escorting the re­mains of her husband to Tennessee, and the regimental band, with its women and children, began that Febru­ary "change of headquarters." The Army reported only about three dead and two wounded, but the Indians claimed the figures were at least 60 and 120, respectively. And it will always be so, sad though it may seem to many. . General Custer's Last Fight, Battle of the Little ... Grenville M Dodge How We Built the Union Pacific R... Captain Jack John W. Crawford the Poet Scout, Sitting Bull Lakotah's Account of the Custer Massacre, Captain Jack Modoc Indian Wars of 1872 - 1873. Not a wagon train bound for Montana could pass up the Bozeman trail, which ran under the walls of the fort, and for the protection of which it had been established, without being attacked again and again. Each company had been directed to keep forty rounds per man on hand for immediate use in any emergency, besides extra boxes always kept in com­pany quarters. They had both sworn to die rather than be taken alive by the Indians, and in the last extremity they had carried out their vows. But even had there been a full knowledge of the dan­gers incurred, the army women would have gone with their husbands. Nearly one-fourth of the efficient force of the fort had been wiped out. On the eighth of December President Andrew John­son congratulated Congress that treaties had been made at Fort Laramie, and that all was peace in the Northwest! The Indians were much afraid of the "gun that shoots twice," as they called it. Jose Santos Zelaya President of Nicaragua, Devil's Corkscrews Badlands of Wyoming Nebraska Rocky Mountains, American Escadrille in France World War I. 307-684-7629. - See 137 traveller reviews, 110 candid photos, and great deals for Sheridan, WY, at Tripadvisor. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. This seemed impossible, as he belonged to Fetterman's command. The doctor hastened away, but returned soon after with the information that the wood train had gone on, and that when he attempted to cross the valley of the Peno to join Fetterman's men he found it full of Indians, who were swarming about Lodge Trail Ridge, and that no sign of Fetterman was observed. One faction, in the Hayfield Fight, attacked a haying party near Fort C.F. Powered by. The post was isolated, the weather frightful. Carrington was directed to march to Fort Reno, move it forty miles westward, garrison it, and then, with the bal­ance of his command, establish another post on the Bozeman trail, between the Big Horn Mountains and the Powder River, so as to command that valley much frequented by Indians; and, lastly, to establish two other posts, one on the Big Horn, the other on the Yellow­stone, for the further protection of the trail. From it, on the 31st of October, with great ceremony and much rejoicing, the first garrison flag that ever floated over the land was unfurled. It was escorted by a guard from a wood train, and brought in the scalped, naked, dead body of one of their comrades, a strange welcome, indeed, to the young wife, who, upon leaving Laramie, had been assured of a beautiful ride through fertile valleys without danger, and sadder yet in its sequel two months later. There they were menaced by the Indians for the first time and every endeavor was made to stampede their herds. The force was woefully inadequate, and the number of officers had been depleted by detachment and other causes until there were but six left. But these are only surmises; what really happened, God alone knows. After every campaign poor, wretched women of stranded and robbed emigrant trains or devastated settlements were brought into the various camps, to whom these army women ministered with loving care, and from whom they heard frightful and sickening de­tails that froze the blood; yet the army wife herself never faltered in her devotion, never failed in her willingness to follow wherever her husband was sent. Hostile demonstrations were met by prompt forays or pursuits, as circumstances permitted; and on one occasion the general pursued a band that ran off a herd nearly to Tongue River; but flashing mirrors betrayed Indian attempts to gain his rear, and a return was ordered, abandoning the stolen stock. No more could be spared, and not a man with him could cut a fuse or handle the piece anyway. Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site The tragic events associated with Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Wagon Box Fight form one of the most dramatic chapters in the history of the Indian Wars. The next spring John M. Bozeman and John M. Jacobs blazed the Bozeman Trail. Construction began on July 13, 1866, and it ultimately consisted of 42 log and frame buildings within a 600 by 800-foot stockade of heavy pine timber 11 feet high and had blockhouses at diagonal corners. (Last Privacy Policy Update July 2020), Byways & Historic Trails – Great Drives in America, Soldiers and Officers in American History, Alva Gould – Discoverer of the Famous Gould and Curry Mine, Honest Miner To a Poker-Playing Politician, Old Tom – A Typical Mining Camp Character, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Colorado. A little later forty additional men were sent after Ten Eyck. It is a necessary addition to other material on Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Bozeman Trail. But they literally surrounded Fort Phil Kearney at all times. Captain Fetterman, instead of leading his men direct to the wood train on the south side of Sullivant Hills, double-quicked toward the Peno Valley on to the north side. I order the wood train in, which will give fifty men to spare.". During this council, to an­ticipate later events, Carrington, then approaching with troops, arrived in advance, dismounted, and was intro­duced to the members of the council. Prominent among them was Captain William J. Fetterman, who boasted that he and 80 men could ride through the whole Sioux Nation. The night was one of wild anxiety. Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site: Great, But Fetterman Massacre Site Is Better!!! About two hundred of the men were veterans, the rest raw recruits. His own wife, as appears from her narrative, approved his action and nerved herself to meet the possible fate involved, while Mrs. Grummond was the chief protest­ant that, as her husband was undoubtedly dead, there should be no similar disaster invited by another expe­dition. The guns were especially needed at the fort to protect women and children. The Fetterman Massacre: Fort Phil Kearny and the Battle of the Hundred Slain - Kindle edition by Brown, Dee. The third pro­jected post was not established. Fort Phil Kearny was an outpost of the United States Army that existed in the late 1860s in present-day northeastern Wyoming along the Bozeman Trail.Construction began Friday July 13, 1866 by Companies A, C, E and H of the 2nd Battalion, 18th Infantry, under the direction of the regimental commander and Mountain District commander Colonel Henry B. Carrington. No one in the command seems to have had the least idea that any force of Indians, however great, could overcome it. Fort Phil Kearny State Historic Site: Historic massacre of US Army troops in 1866 - See 137 traveler reviews, 110 candid photos, and great deals for Sheridan, WY, at Tripadvisor. Smith in Montana. No better choice could have been made for the expedition. The women and children were placed in the magazine, a building well adapted for defense, which had been stocked with water, crackers, etc., for an emergency, with an officer pledged not to allow the women to be taken alive, if the General did not return and the Indians overcame the stockade. The spot was delightful. It was one of the few instances during the Indian Wars when the Army was forced to abandon a region it had occupied when the Sioux triumphed and the forts were evacuated. Fetterman and Brown, unfortunately were the chief of these malcontents. A clique of his younger and more impetuous officers, who disliked him and resisted his attempts to impose discipline, were contemptuous. The westward-moving tide of civilization had at last pressed back from the Missouri and the Mississippi the Sioux and their allies, the Cheyennes, the largest and most famous of the several great groups of Indians who have disputed the advance of the white man since the days of Columbus, saving perhaps the Creeks and the Iroquois. At both battlefield sites, visitors will find an interpretive trail that leads through the battle providing both Indian and White perspectives of the conflict. The visitor's center has some displays, a film, and a model. There were no evidences of a very severe struggle right there. He rightly judged that the moral effect of the battle would be greatly enhanced, in the eyes of the Indians, if the bodies were not recov­ered. The war with the Indians was about the ownership of territory, as most of our Indian wars have been. But if a comparatively small group of nomadic and savage tribes insists upon re­serving a great body of land for a mere hunting ground, using as a game preserve that which, in a civilized re­gion, would easily support a great agricultural and ur­ban population of industrious citizens seeking relief from the crowded and confined conditions of older com­munities, what are you going to do about it? Some of them, including Fetterman and Brown, "offered with eighty men to ride through the whole Sioux Nation!" In the late spring and summer of 1866, a U.S. commission met with these leaders at Fort Laramie, Wyoming. In full view of the mass of Indians who occupied the parade ground he sprang from the platform under the shelter of pine boughs, struck his tepees and went on the warpath. Carrington had done nothing to provoke war, but had simply carried out General Sherman's written instruc­tions, sent him as late as August, to "avoid a general war, until the army could be reorganized and increased; but he defended himself and command stoutly when attacked. Such was the melancholy fate of Fetterman and his men. In the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), in return for certain Indian concessions, it bowed to Red Cloud’s demands and agreed to close the Bozeman Trail and abandon the three forts protecting it. He sees no sign of Captain Fetterman's command. To the eastward of the smaller branch rose a high hill called Pilot Hill. The general had been forced to advance under fire, and meeting the fugitive cavalry, ordered them to fall in behind his own detachment. Early in 1866 Government Commissioners at Fort Laramie, Nebraska, were negotiating a treaty with the Sioux and Northern Cheyennes to secure the right of way for emigrants through that territory which, by the Harney-Sanborne treaty, had been conceded to them in 1865. You would have saved two miles toward the scene of action if you had taken Lodge Trail Ridge. General Carrington was a graduate of Yale College. The largest of the three posts guarding the Bozeman Trail, it was one of the best fortified western forts of the time. The timber fields outside of the fort were naturally vulnerable with the men spreading out to cut down limber to be used for construction. At first most of the settlers merely wished to pass through the country and settle in the fair lands upon the other side, but the fer­tility and beauty that met their eyes on every hand irresistibly invited settlement on the journey. Although every preparation for a desperate defense had been made, there were not enough men to man the walls. Fort Phil Kearny was one the reasons for this trip. Game there was in plenty; water was clear and abundant. It seems incredible to think that women should ac­company such an expedition, but no grave anticipations of trouble with the Indians were felt by any persons in authority at that time. As we may read in letters and books written by army wives, it was brought home to them directly again and again. One afternoon, early in October, the picket reported that the wood train was attacked to the west, and shortly after signaled the approach of a small party of soldiers from the east. He had been a teacher, an engineer and scientist, a lawyer and man of affairs, a student of military matters as well as Adjutant-General of Ohio for several years prior to the outbreak of the Civil War. Since the United States began to be there never was such a post as Fort Philip Kearney, common­ly called Fort Phil Kearney From its establish­ment, in 1866, to its abandonment, some two years later, it was practically in a state of siege. Brown rode to the death of both a little Indian "calico" pony which he had given to the general's boys when they started from Fort Leavenworth, in November, 1865, and the body of the horse was found in the low ground at the west slope of the ridge, showing that the fight began there, before they could reach high ground. The State owns three acres of the probable 25-acre site. The plateau lay between two branches of the Piney. Picket posts were established upon Pilot and Sullivant Hills, which overlooked approaches both from the east and the road to the mountains. In the afternoon, with a heavily armed force of eighty men, Carrington went in person to the scene of battle. Lieutenant Grummond, after a hand-to-hand fight, was closely pressed by mounted Indians and was barely rescued. History records no greater instances of romantic devo­tion than those exhibited by the army wife. It was a close call for all, but Lieutenants Grummond and Bingham were yet unac­counted for. There were 8 foot high thick log walls that enclosed a 17 acre area. Seeing that all was lost, they had evidently stood face to face, and each had shot the other dead with his revolver. The army woman's knowledge of the peril in the usual border warfare was not an imaginary one, either. The place, with its considerable extent, might now be attacked at any time. The alarm caused in the fort by this news was deep­ened by the sound of firing at twelve o'clock. Men and women dressed in furs made from wolf skins tak­en from the hundreds of wolves which infested the outside butcher-field at night, and which were poisoned by the men for their fur. General Sherman expressly stated that "Colonel Carrington's report, to his personal knowledge, was fully sustained," but by some unaccountable over­sight or intent, the report was suppressed and never published, thereby doing lasting injustice to a brave and faithful soldier. After their ammunition had been spent, they had been stripped, shot full of arrows, hacked to pieces, scalped, and muti­lated in a horrible manner. One expedition is characteristic of many. The Hayfield and Wagon Box Fights exacted a modicum of revenge for the Fetterman Massacre, but they did not deter hostilities. It would have gone hard with them, however, had not Carrington and the first six of his detachment sud­denly swept around a small hill or divide and taken the Indians in reverse. Late in the afternoon Ten Eyck's party returned to the fort with terrible tidings of appalling disaster. Capt. The Sweet Water Country and all east of the Wind River Range, including South Pass and the region west of the great bend of the North Platte, had its prairies and fer­tile valleys. The land was desirable naturally and attracted the attention of the settlers. By that summer the Indians had closed the Bozeman Trail to all but heavily guarded military convoys, but the troops won two victories. The youngster accomplished it by lying upon his back with feet braced against the bow, and the general squarely withdrew from the con­test, declining to follow the boy's ingenious artifice. The warnings of Red Cloud had not prevented the fort’s establishment, but he soon put it under virtual siege. One of my men fell and his horse on him. Plan of Fort Kearney from Indian Fights and Fighters (1904) Pilot Hill, Fort Phil Kearny, WY. There were fifty-one demonstrations in force in front of the fort, and they attacked every train that passed over the trail. The U.S. government responded by building a series of protective forts along the trail; the largest and most important of these was Fort Phil Kearney, erected in 1866 in north-central Wyoming. Grummond had a wife in delicate health at the post, and he was cautioned by the officers to take care not to be led into a trap, although his experience on the 6th, when he had so narrowly escaped death, was, it would seem, the best warning he could have had. Carrington ordered it re-stockaded and put in thorough repair, garrisoned it from his command, and with the balance, something over five hundred. The Moun­tain District at that time had but one post in it, Fort Reno, one hundred and sixty miles from Fort Laramie. He was filled with anxiety as to the course of the fight on the other side of the ridge. This will involve the provision of a resi­ dence and services of the keeper, the same as has just been found necessary for the monument erected at the birthplace of Washington. Church Call at West Point United States Military A... American Emigrants from the Isle of Capri. The many rivers which traversed the territory teemed with fish the valleys which they watered were abun­dantly fertile for the growing of the few crops which the Indian found necessary for his support. The Fetterman Massacre (formerly Fort Phil Kearny, an American Saga). A year later opportunity was given the sol­diers at Phil Kearney to exact a dreadful revenge from Red Cloud and his Sioux for the slaughter of their brave comrades. Although all the remaining officers assembled at his quarters advised him not to undertake it, lest the savages, flushed with victory, should attempt another attack, Carrington quietly excused his officers, told the adjutant to remain with him, and the bugle instantly disclosed his purpose in spite of dissenting protests. This train was frequently attacked. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. The tragic events associated with Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Wagon Box Fight form one of the most dramatic chapters in the history of the Indian Wars.For two bloody years from 1866 to 1868, the Sioux Indians, bitter and opposing the invasion of their hunting grounds by prospectors bound over the Bozeman Trail to the Montana goldfields, fought back viciously. Phillips continued on through a snowstorm to Fort Laramie on a 236-mile ride, honored in the annals of Wyoming history. Perhaps it ill becomes us to censure the dead, but the whole unfortunate affair arose from a direct disobe­dience of orders on the part of Fetterman and his men. So necessary did he think the caution that he repeated it to Lieutenant Grum­mond, who, with the cavalry, followed the infantry out of the gate, the infantry, having less preparation to make, getting away first. Although Carrington had conducted himself in every way as a brave, prudent, skillful, capable soldier, al­though his services merited reward, not censure, and demanded praise, not blame, the people and the au­thorities required a scapegoat. "Carrington's book is a riveting portrait of life at a frontier post in dangerous territory, as well as a snapshot of Victorian mores and the lingering influence of the Civil War. Banner, Wyoming  82832 The cavalrymen, mostly recruits, were deeply ashamed of their defection, which was partly due to the incaution of their officers in leaving them to pursue a few Indians, and they were burning with a desire to retrieve their reputation, which they bravely did with their lives some two weeks later. The Indian loss was very heavy, but could not exactly be determined. This meticulously documented and exciting book should stand as the definitive account. There was fighting all the time. And, save for the actual campaigning in the field, the army wife was everywhere — sometimes there, too. Brown and Fetterman were found lying side by side, each with a bullet wound in the left temple. One single incident may be taken as illus­trative of the life of the garrison. The casualties in the little command were two killed, five wounded. Photo by Carol Highsmith. The area around the fort was the site of the Fetterman massacre and the Wagon Box Fight. To relieve the train, Carrington sent out Fetterman, two other officers, 48 infantrymen, 28 cavalrymen, and two civilians—81 men in all. A messenger was sent to the fort for an ambulance, and the command retired in good order without further sight of the Indians. He was a high-minded Christian gentleman, a soldier of large experience and proven courage, an administrator of vigor and capacity, and, as his subsequent career has shown, a man of fine literary talents. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The Fetterman Massacre: Fort Phil Kearny and the Battle of the Hundred Slain. Emigrant trains were also pushed forward with their assurance that an ample force of regulars had gone up the country to ensure their safety. Be­sides which, details were constantly needed to carry dispatches, to deliver the mail, to get supplies, to succor emigrant trains, and so on. Impressed by Powell's report, Carrington himself ac­companied the augmented train on the 20th, built a bridge across to Piney Island to facilitate quick haul­ing, and returned to the fort to make ready for one more trip only. The basically unaltered natural scene of the sites of Fort Phil Kearny, the Fetterman Massacre, and the Wagon Box Fight, despite surrounding ranch operations, are marred by but few modern intrusions. They had evidently been tortured to death. I feel sure they fought until the last. Passing the place where the greatest slaughter had occurred, the men marched cautiously along the trail. Carrington at once released all prisoners from the guard-house, armed the quarter­master's employees, the citizens, and mustered alto­gether a force of only one hundred and nineteen men to defend the post. The Fetterman Massacre: Fort Phil Kearny and the Battle of the Hundred Slain - Ebook written by Dee Brown. Title The Indian battle and massacre near Fort Philip Kearney, Dacotah [sic] Territory, December 21, 1866 Summary Large group of Native Americans on horseback surrounding United States Army soldiers. We use cookies. Makh-pi-ah-lu-tah, Oglala Sioux Chief Red Cloud. If the Government erects a monument that can be destroyed by these people, it should be cared for by the United States. 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