In the present work, we demonstrate that hybrids are also phenotypically highly variable in features of sexual reproduction with a small subset of individuals contributing disproportionately to seed and pollen production. Combining two recent microsatellite analyses of Spartina (35 loci; 11 loci in Blum et al., 2003; 24 loci in Sloop et al., 2005), we find that hybrids had 85% more alleles per locus (4.94 vs. 2.66 alleles per locus) and were 80% more heterozygous (0.68 vs. 0.37 observed heterozygosity) than S. foliosa. and Spartina alterniflora Loisel. (SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA) A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in The Department of Agronomy by Xiaobing Fang B.S., Southwest Agricultural University, China, 1986 May, 2002 taller, thicker stems and/or red culm colour (See Fig. 99‐110). It reproduces by seed, rhizome, or vegetative fragmentation (Daehler and Strong 1994). Seedlings were collected from unvegetated open mudflat below the range of S. foliosa adjacent to a highly invaded marsh at Alameda Island, and along the sparsely vegetated Hayward Shoreline 40 km south of Alameda in 2003 and 2004. 2019-01-09T21:57:29-08:00 Spartina alterniflora exhibited protogynous flowering where stigmas protruded from the floret 2–5 d before anthesis. uuid:4d32d604-aa87-11b2-0a00-60b053f2fd7f Two hundred microlitres of incubation medium (0.01 g mL−1 2‐3‐4 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC); in 0.067 m phosphate buffer, Ausubel et al., 1998) was added to the tube, and then vortexed for 30 s, shaking the pollen out of the anther. Hybridization between Schoenoplectus sedges across Chesapeake Bay marshes. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 2011. Five microlitres was withdrawn from the bottom of the tube and placed on a slide. As native S. foliosa becomes increasingly rare, hybrid seed floating on the tides will predominate, overwhelming recruitment sites and resulting in further colonization by hybrids. Genetic characterization of hybridization between native and invasive bittersweet vines (Celastrus spp.). The purpose of this study was to explore clonal integration of Spartina alterniflora under gradually changing substrate salinity conditions. Flora category. Each plant from the invaded marsh was also characterized genetically with RAPDs as native or hybrid. While some hybrid individuals exceeded S. foliosa performance by several‐fold, others were inferior to the native plants (Figs 1–2). If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, endobj The genetic mechanism of cordgrass hybrid vigour is not heterosis as none of the 54 plants or any of the seedling progeny was an F1 hybrid. One reason for this was because there were only four S. foliosa plants in our study population. Atlantic cordgrass in language. Hybrid seed collected from Cogswell Marsh and from several populations of S. foliosa in 1998 was placed in 25% sea water by volume at 4 °C for 2 months to satisfy pre‐germination requirements (Seneca, 1974). 52 0 obj Genetically diverse, introgressive hybrids (Ayres et al., 1999; Anttila et al., 2000; Sloop, 2005) between Spartina foliosa Trin. Spartina alterniflora can be widely used for fodder, sewage treatment and as a substantial source of bioactive material. Seed Seed is not produced (Timmins & MacKenzie 1995). Contrasting plant adaptation strategies to latitude in the native and invasive range of Spartina alterniflora. Morphological and anatomical evidence supports differentiation of new interspecific hybrids from native Spartina maritima and invasive S. densiflora (Poaceae, subfamily Chloridoideae). Control and consequences of Spartina spp. Faster‐than‐exponential population growth resulted from elevated vegetative growth rate of ‘fit’ hybrids, and increases in their ovule production and vigour of their seedlings, especially under a high recruitment scenario. Forms monoculture stands that overtake … Further genetic work revealed a swarm of genetically diverse hybrids (Ayres et al., 1999) that resulted from back‐ and inter‐hybrid crosses (Anttila et al., 2000). Plants also trade‐off investment into growth vs. sexual reproduction, as described by life‐history theory. Yan Xiao. endobj They were sub‐irrigated; 1× a month, 0.5 g per plant of 20‐20‐20 Plantex fertilizer was added to the irrigation water. Open mud flat is transformed into elevated meadows when clonal patches coalesce (Feist & Simenstad, 2000 and references therein). We found little evidence for the evolution of genetic clines in China, even though these exist for some traits in the native range. 1), while native and hybrids were on equal footing in seedling germination and survival (Table 4). In this paper we have focused on aspects of sexual reproduction of cordgrasses because of the abundance of potential recruitment sites in San Francisco Bay. It is … Previously, we used RAPD markers to analyse seedlings collected from restoration sites, and from open patches created where wrack smothered the existing vegetation within a minimally invaded S. foliosa–Sa. uuid:4d32aae8-aa87-11b2-0a00-782dad000000 <> Hybridization of invasive Phragmites australis with a native subspecies in North America. In this paper, based on spatially explicit individual-based model and global sensitivity analysis, the relative importance of sexual and asexual reproduction for range expansion of Spartina alterniflora in different tidal zones during different invasion stages has been revealed. We used two‐way analysis of variance (JMP version 4.0) to evaluate differences in the components of flower and seed production as effects of the following factors: genetic category (S. foliosa or hybrid) and year in field populations. Spartina alterniflora rapidly spread their populations via both sexual (seed) (Hayasaka et al., 2020) and asexual (clonal) reproduction and then form a high-density single colony (Somers and … Previous research comparing individuals of S. foliosa and S. alterniflora suggested that the greater male fitness of rare S. alterniflora individuals could threaten the common native species with large‐scale hybridization (Anttila et al., 1998). Vegetative fragments from plants at the invaded site were transplanted to Alameda Island, and San Bruno Marsh a few years later. from Core Infestations. Native plants exceeded the majority of hybrids only in the intensity of flowering (Fig. endobj Learn about our remote access options. Appligent AppendPDF Pro 5.5 Spartina alterniflora reproduces by two main routes: clo-nal reproduction by the formation of underground rhi-zomes and sexual reproduction by flowers to form seeds (Daehler and Strong 1994, Trilla et al. It was introduced to China from native populations in … Spartina has been planted by humans to reclaim estuarine areas for farming, to supply fodder for … endobj The exotic species Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) seriously threatens the stability and functioning of saltmarsh ecosystems in the Yangtze Estuary.Ambitious efforts have been undertaken to control this species, but subsequent re-invasion is frequent, presenting a significant barrier to restoration. RA Zerebecki, AR Hughes, Snail behavioral preference for flowering stems does not impact Spartina alterniflora reproduction, Marine Ecology Progress Series, … Compromising genetic diversity in the wild: unmonitored large-scale release of plants and animals. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Geographical Variation and Influencing Factors of Spartina alterniflora Expansion Rate in Coastal China. By 2017, the width of S. alterniflora was 1.88 km, the length was 12.90 km and the area was 3,925 ha. ... Reproduction and Life Cycle. 1) on average, but hybrid plants varied widely from inflorescences containing fewer than 125 flowers to ones containing over 800 flowers. Abstract. 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